Abstract Background Medication errors are often involved in reported adverse events. Drug therapy, prescribed by physicians, is mostly carried out by nurses, who are expected to master all aspects of medication. Research has revealed the need for improved knowledge in drug dose calculation, and medication knowledge as a whole is poorly investigated. The purpose of this survey was to study registered nurses' medication knowledge, certainty and estimated risk of errors, and to explore factors associated with good results.
Kinds of certainty There are various kinds of certainty. A belief is psychologically certain when the subject who has it is supremely convinced of its truth.
Certainty in this sense is similar to incorrigibility, which is the property a belief has of being such that the subject is incapable of giving it up. But psychological certainty is not the same thing as incorrigibility.
A belief can be certain in this sense without being incorrigible; this may happen, for example, when the subject receives a very compelling bit of counterevidence to the previously certain belief and gives it up for that reason.
Moreover, a belief can be incorrigible without being psychologically certain. For example, a mother may be incapable of giving up the belief that her son did not commit a gruesome murder, and yet, compatible with that inextinguishable belief, she may be tortured by doubt.
A second kind of certainty is epistemic. Roughly characterized, a belief is certain in this sense when it has the highest possible epistemic status. Epistemic certainty is often accompanied by psychological certainty, but it need not be.
It is possible that a subject may have a belief that enjoys the highest possible epistemic status and yet be unaware that it does. In such a case, the subject may feel less than the full confidence that her epistemic position warrants.
I will say more below about the analysis of epistemic certainty and its relation to psychological certainty.
Some philosophers also make use of the notion of moral certainty see Markie Thus characterized, moral certainty appears to be epistemic in nature, though it is a lesser status than epistemic certainty.
Understood in this way, it does not appear to be a species of knowledge, given that a belief can be morally certain and yet false contra Markiep. Rather, on this view, for a belief to be morally certain is for it to be subjectively rational to a high degree. Although all three kinds of certainty are philosophically interesting, it is epistemic certainty that has traditionally been of central importance.
In what follows, then, I shall focus mainly on this kind of certainty. Conceptions of certainty There have been many different conceptions of certainty. Each of them captures some central part of our intuitive understanding of certainty, but, as we shall see, none of them is free from problems.
Certainty is often explicated in terms of indubitability. This has been done in a variety of ways. Descartes then concludes that the proposition that he himself exists is true whenever he considers it.
However, even if Descartes took this view of the certainty of the cogito, he did not accept the general claim that certainty is grounded in indubitability. Matters are complicated, however, by the fact that Descartes also says in the Third Meditation that certainty depends on knowing that God exists and is not a deceiver.
Ludwig Wittgenstein also seems to connect certainty with indubitability. This is, of course, compatible with their being false. In general, every indubitability account of certainty will face a similar problem.
The problem may be posed as a dilemma: If she does not have good reasons for being unable to doubt the belief, the type of certainty in question can be only psychological, not epistemic, in nature.
On the other hand, if the subject does have good reasons for being unable to doubt the belief, the belief may be epistemically certain. A second problem for indubitability accounts of certainty is that, in one sense, even beliefs that are epistemically certain can be reasonably doubted.
As with knowing that p, being certain that p entails that it is true that p. Certainty is, however, significantly stronger than lesser forms of knowledge. In cases where the subject knows without being certain that p, it is actually true that p, though it could have been false.
But, where the subject is certain that p, it does not merely turn out to be true that p—in some sense it could not have been otherwise.
The difficulty for this conception of certainty is specifying the precise sense in which the belief could not have been false. What is meant cannot be what is called metaphysical or broadly logical impossibility.
Although some of the paradigmatically certain beliefs are necessarily true in this sense, many others are not. For example, though I am certain of the truth of the cogito, it is not necessarily true in the metaphysical sense that I exist. That is, it is possible that I might not have existed.
But this opens up two further problems for this conception of certainty. That is to say, the belief would be certain, not in virtue of the fact that it is guaranteed to be true, but rather in virtue of its relation to the grounds that make that guarantee possible.
This would be so because the grounds would provide a deeper explanation for the certainty of the belief than would the fact that the belief is guaranteed to be true.According to Kant, the mind makes knowledge possible by.
The pragmatists thought that the pragmatic and the theoretical were complete opposites. false. *Past observations, however numerous, will not tell us with certainty how things will be in the future. We cannot be certain, when an observation contradicts our theory, whether it is.
(philosophy) the doctrine that knowledge is acquired by reason without resort to experience. atheism. to reach certainty one most go through all of their beliefs and get rid of all the bad one,start over on a foundation of truths Scottish philosopher whose sceptical philosophy restricted human knowledge to that which can be perceived by.
Similarly to knowledge, certainty or confidence is suggested as being the most important aspect of a deeper understanding of perceived risk (Mitchell, ), and Dowling and Staelin (, p. ) discuss uncertainty as one of the most basic attributes of perceived risk.
The term certainty is often used to describe knowledge without the possibility of doubt. This is omniscience. It is an improper use of the term. Certainty could have no meaning when applied to an omniscient being, since it wouldn't have the capacity for doubt.
It only has meaning when applied to human beings. Medication knowledge, certainty, and risk of errors in health care: a cross-sectional study.
skills and risk of errors are complex and involve factors such as perceived certainty, sense of coping and self-esteem, areas that are The lack of basic knowledge may be explained by little emphasis on introduction to drug management .
Does Morality Condition the Deterrent Effect of Perceived Certainty Among Incarcerated Felons? SAT offers a unique theoretical prediction regarding the interaction between morality and deterrence, Does Morality Condition the Deterrent Effect of Perceived Certainty Among Incarcerated Felons?
Alex R. Piquero 1.